Exquisite archaeological sites, monuments and remains of (Hisar city) Haryana that mutely testify to the remarkable historical journey of its people and their culture from a vital link in understanding the saga of their efflorescence.
The present Hisar city has a history of more than six centuries to its credit and is one of the important cities of North India.
Presently Hisar is situated 164 Kilometres west to Delhi on the National Highway 9. Hisar is called as North west dry area of India by the Meteorological Department of India.
The Climate of Hisar is extreme and February is the most enjoyable month here. Monsoon is scanty and very humid. Col James Todd (1782-1833) was in Hisar on 28th and 29th November 1816. He came from Kotah to Hisar and describes very much about the climate and land of Hisar as one of the best place to visit.
“The name of the district is derived from its headquarters town, Hisar founded by Firoz Shah Tuglaq about A.D. 1364” According to V.S. Agrawala, “Aisukari or Isukara, a beautiful and prosperous city of Kuru Janpada referred, to by Panini was the ancient name of Hisar.”
When Firoz Shah Tuglaq became the ruler, he was a failure on the military front but then also he ruled for about 37 years which was a long period in sultanate times.
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Firoz has to his credit, the establishment of cities like Fatehabad, Hisar, Firozabad, Jaunpur and many other minor townships. Firoz Shah Tuglaq named the city as Hisar-e-Firoza which means “Fort of Firoz”.
The word Hisar is a Persian word, meaning Fort or Quilla. For more than two centuries the city was called Hisar-e-Firoza, but during the reign of Akbar (1556-1605), it was known as Hisar. During the reign of Firoz (1351-88) Hisar shot into prominence.
The new ruler came to have somewhat unusual fancy for the tract. “Being on the direct road from Khurasan, Multan and the West Punjab, which ultimately reached Delhi, it had great importance from Military and trade point of view. Besides, the place was admirably adapted as a starting point for the hunting expedition in which the Sultan frequently indulged”.
The Sultan did many good turns to Hisar. “It is a great credit to him that he established new towns of Fatehabad and Hisar and built two canals; one taking off from the Ghaggar at Phulad and following the course of the Joiya up to the new town of Fatehabad and the second from the Yamuna to the towns of Hansi and Hisar and is known as Western Yamuna (Jamuna) Canal”.
The construction of the fort started in 1354 and to build the fort water was required so the Sultan built a canal named “Rajiwah” after his father. Malik Ghazi Shahan was appointed as the Chief architect for building the fort. Planning, finance and all other responsibilities to build the fort was given to him. The Sultan himself took keen interest in the making of the fort. The construction of the fort was complete in two and a half years.
The boundary wall of Hisar Firoza was built of stones brought from the hills of Narsai (Narnaul). The fort city was surrounded by a big ditch dug around the wall and large and deep tanks were constructed inside the fort. The nobles were directed to get their residences built inside the fort. Four gates were made in the Fort. Nagori gate to its south, Mori gate to its East, Talaqui gate to its west and Delhi gate to its east. The building was more functional and useful rather than artistic.
The Sultan built a palace called “Gujari Mahal” for his beloved to whom he fell in love and thus the Historic complex of Hisar fort were built. The Baradari in Gujari Mahal is a square structure having developed arches on each side. “The exterior walls above the arched opening are provided with beautifully carved red sandstone brackets”.
Lat ki Masjid, the mosque is a unique example of Tuglaq architecture. The mosque is L-shaped ablution tank and a Lat (pillar). The lat is made of sandstone, which is a part of a Ashokan pillar. Many Tahkhanas, Diwan-e-aam, Hamam and other structure were built inside the fort by the Sultan Firoz. “The city of Hisar was founded in 1354 AD by Sultan Firoz Shah Tuglaq who is known in Indian History for his commitment, to the construction of beautiful Towns and buildings”.